Divisions of Printed Matter

Edited while studying the Chicago University Manual of Style.
Last updated (Wed, Jan. 11th).

Book half-title: The half title normally consists only of the main title. The subtitle is omitted, and the author’s name does not appear. The verso of the half title (p. ii) is usually blank, but may contain text or illustration.

Series Title, Frontispiece, or blank: Page ii sometimes carries this illustration, called a Frontispiece.

Title Page: The title page presents the full title of the book; the subtitle; if any; the name of the author, editor, or translator; and the name and location of the publisher. If the type size or style of the subtitle differs from that of the main title, no colon or mark of punctuation is needed to separate them.

New Edition: In a new edition of a work previously printed, the number of the edition (e.g., Third Edition) should also appear on the title page, usually following the title.

Copyright Page: The Copyright Act of 1989 does not require that published works carry a copyright notice in order to secure copyright protection, Nevertheless, most publishers continue to carry the notice to discourage infringement.

Year of Publication. The year of publication should correspond to the copyright date.

Dedication: If a dedication is included, it should appear by itself, preferably on page v. The phrasing, to be determined by the author, is best-kept simple. There is no need to say “Dedicated to.” Such forms as “To Carly”, “For my Mother,” or “In Memory of, Shawn W.” are appropriate.

Epigraph: a quotation that is pertinent, but not imperative to the published work — at the beginning of a book. If there is no dedication, the epigraph should be placed on page v.

(Table of) Contents: The table of contents (usually titled simply Contents) begins on page v or if page v carries a dedication or epigraph, page vii. The table of contents should include all material that follows it, but should exclude anything that precedes it.

(List of) Illustration — Titles

(List of) Tables

Foreword: Usually a statement by someone other than the author. Sometimes an eminent person whose name might be carried on the title page.

Preface: Usually an author’s preface includes reasons for undertaking the work or research, and sometimes permissions granted for the use of the previously published material.

Acknowledgments (if not part of preface)- Acknowledgments should be placed in a separate section following the preface.

Introduction (if not part of the text): Most of the introductions belong not in the front matter but at the beginning of the text, paginated with Arabic numerals.

Abbreviations (if not in back matter)

Chronology (if not in back matter)

Second Half-Title:

Where the front matter is extensive, a second half title, identical to the one on page 1.


First text page (introduction or chapter 1)


Second half title or first part title


First text page

Back Matter

Acknowledgments (if not in front matter)

Appendix (or first, if more than one): An appendix may include explanations and elaborations that are not essential parts of the text but are helpful to a reader seeking further clarification. The appendix should not be a repository for odds and ends that the author could not work into the text.

Second and subsequent appendixes: When two or more appendixes are required, they should be designated by either numbers or letters.

Chronology (if not in front matter): A chronological list of events may be useful in certain works. It usually appears in the back matter, sometimes as an appendix.

Abbreviations (if not in front matter)

Notes: Endnotes, simply headed Notes, follow any appendix material and precede the bibliography or reference list (if there is one)

Glossary: A glossary is a useful tool in a book containing many foreign or unfamiliar terms. Words to be defined should be arranged in alphabetical order.

Bibliography or References: Bibliographies and reference lists are normally set smaller than the text and in flush-and-hang style.

(List of) Contributors: Often appears in the back matter, immediately before the index. Names are arranged alphabetically but not inverted.

Illustration Credits (if not in captions or elsewhere)

Titles of Works

Capitalization, Hyphenation, and Punctuation.

The following applies to titles of books, journals, newspapers, and other freestanding publications as well as to shorter works, divisions of longer works, unpublished works, plays, films, radio and television programs, musical works, and artworks.

Capitalization. In their original form (on title pages) most titles appear either in capitals and lowercase “clc”(Like This). Regardless of their original appearance, quoted titles may be capitalized either in sentence style or, more commonly, in headline styles.

Sentence-Style. In sentence-style capitalization, only the first word in a title, the first word in a subtitle, and any proper names are capitalized. This style is most commonly used in reference lists, and library catalogs. It is also useful in works whose section headings are very long or in works whose headings include terms that require their own capitalization.

Headline style. The conventions of headline style, admittedly arbitrary, are governed by a mixture of aesthetics, emphasis, and grammar. Some words are always capitalized; some are always lowercased (unless used as the first or last word in a title): others require a decision. If you are not sure what grammatical function a word is performing (or even if you are) try reading the title aloud: if you would stress the word, capitalize it; if not, lowercase it.

Hyphenation. The simple rule: Capitalize only the first element unless any subsequent element is a proper noun or adjective.

Quotations as titles. When a quoted sentence, or a fill clause, is used as a title, sentence-style capitalization is often appropriate.

Quoted Titles: When quoted in text or listed in a bibliography, titles of books, journals, plays, and other works are italicized. Titles of chapters and shorter works are set in roman and enclosed in quotation marks.

Subtitles. Always begins with a capital letter. A Subtitle is often distinguished from a title by a different typeface, when quoted in the text it is separated from the title by a colon.

Punctuation in quoted titles. On title pages, Where the title often appears in very large type, commas are sometimes omitted from the ends of lines. When a title is quoted, commas should be added.

What to italicize. Only the official name of a periodical should be italicized. An added descriptive term is lowercased.

When not to italicize. When the name of a newspaper is part of the name of a building organization, prize, or the like, it is not italicized.

“The title of a work should not be used to stand for the subject of a work.”

Series and editions. Quoted titles of book series and editions are capitalized but not italicized. The words series and edition are capitalized only if part of the title.

Design Terminology

ABSTRACTION: The art of abstract. Making your own meaning of something unrealistic; visionary. Ones own attempt of communicating a broad idea in a way for everyone to interpret.

ACHROMATIC: Subject matter free from color; Grayscale-Black & White.

ADDITIVE SYSTEM: The creation of colored light. For example, RGB overlaps creating CMYK.

AESTHETICS: Ones own belief or values concentrating on art, philosophy & deep, distinct appreciation for beauty.

ALTERNATING RHYTHM: Repetitious and an intriguing arrangement of design shapes and elements to create an excellent result of image flow. Gives a lasting sense of movement.

ANALOGOUS COLORS: Refers to the adjacent color placed upon the color wheel sharing a very common color.

ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE: Large item balancing out smaller objects on opposing sides. NO suggested symmetry.

COLLAGE: A creative technique for design; an assembly of various items to create a larger, more cohesive image. From precedent to modern day.

COMPLIMENTARY COLORS: A pair of colors that compliment one another. Usually opposites on given color models.

COMPOSITION: The intention of composing an image. Combining like design elements to create an image visually appealing to the human eye.

CONTOUR: An outline or silhouette of an image, more specifically subject matter or mass.

COOL COLORS: Usually the coolest intervals/frequencies of the visible light spectrum.

CRITIQUE: Usually a constructive, productive discussion about a presented body of finished work.

CURVILINEAR: An object of subject matter created by one or more curved line.

DESIGN: To be concise, create, (somewhat) according to plan.

ENIGMATIC: Mystery in the meaning. Puzzling.

FOCAL POINT: Desired point of Focus for the viewer.

GRID: A frame of gridwork, square by square-rectangle by the rectangle (etc.). A repeating pair of intersecting vertical and horizontal lines.

HARMONY: A pleasant, suitable arrangement of images in the design.

HUE: Hue is what we call any particular color made by lightness or darkness to create a defined beam of light in the color spectrum.

JUXTAPOSITION: To place multiple images of design side by side. Compare & contrast.

MODULE: the Standardized unit of measurement in an artwork.

MONOCHROMATIC: A work made of a single hue or color.

NEGATIVE SPACE: A gap in the framework of an art piece. Can be used effectively in minimalist design projects.

OPAQUE: An object that is not transparent such as paint (oil, gouache, acrylic).  The opacity of a given shape or subject.

OVERLAPPING: Connected, Intersected, Or to cover part of. Used in mediums like Silk-screening and stencil making.

PATTERN: A repetition of specific shapes, subjects, or design elements.

PERSPECTIVE: The point of view from which a work is seen or received.

PLANE: A flat surface or level space. Fixed area of artwork.

PRIMARY COLORS: Red, Yellow, Blue. Colors that when mixed can yield infinte results.

PROPORTION: Size, Location, or arrangement of an element relative to the rest of the object.

REPETITION: Multiple uses of the same pattern, image, shape or object to execute and imply a greater idea.

SECONDARY COLORS: The result of mixing primary colors in equal amounts and proportions.

SHADE: An indicated darker part of an image or photograph.

SPECTRUM: The distribution of a broad set of objects, in this case-colour.

STATIC-The use of horizontal and vertical lines or dots which create noise in certain perspectives of a given image.

SUBJECTIVE: A modified opinion based on a personal bias.

SUBTRACTIVE SYSTEM: A way of mixing colors and patterns starting with white as a base.

SYMMETRY: A balance of equal opposites used in geometrics shapes of design.

TACTILE: Practically Tangible; particular to the sense of touch.

TERTIARY COLORS: The result of mixing two secondary colors.

TEXTURE: A descriptive element of art describing a 2-d or 3-D objects feel or touch.

TINT: The shade of a given color, most often when adding white.

TRANSPARENT: Visible; See through.

TROMPE L’OEL: A French phrase meaning To Trick the Eye.

VALUE: Refers to the lightness or darkness of a color.

VANISHING POINT: The perspective on a plane where lines appear to reach, meet, or converge.

VIBRATING COLORS: Create a flickering effect such as Red & Blue are used to make objects appear 3-D

VOLUME: the object or subject frame or fill in a given medium of design.

WARMCOLORS: The warmest intervals of light frequencies of the visible light spectrum

Electronically Published Journals

Front Matter. Most journal home pages include hypertext links to all material typically found in the front matter of a printed journal.

Additional Resources. a fuller description of the of the journal, information about the history of the journal and, if applicable, more extensive information about preparation and submission of electronic text and images. lists of articles scheduled for upcoming issues’, a link to a broader search engine; information about upcoming meetings; subscriptions, press, reviews, media, issues, and other topics.

Names of the editors, sponsors, and the information for contribution.

Publication History. The date of electronic publication should appear as part of the articles history, in both the print and electronic versions.

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN). Each version of a journal should provide the ISSN(s) for any other available versions.

Running Heads

Location and Function. the shortened versions of an articles titles and author names typically included in a print journal’s running heads may be displayed on each screen.


Printed versus electronic text. Typically identical to the article’s print version (if there is a print version). The content and organization are the same, for the most part.